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Antiparasitic Drugs

Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. Antiparasitic drugs include several classes of drugs that cover a broad range of diseases caused by parasites. This activity outlines the indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and contraindications for various classes of

Actived: 5 days ago

URL: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov


The high cost of prescription drugs: causes and solutions

(3 days ago) The high cost of prescription drugs threatens healthcare budgets, and limits funding available for other areas in which public investment is needed. In countries without universal healthcare, the high cost of prescription drugs poses an additional threat: unaffordable out-of-pocket costs for individual patients.

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Illicit Drug Use in the United States

(5 days ago) The use of illegal drugs has been a long-standing problem in American society, a problem that has taken on a particular urgency in the last 30 years. In the early 1960s, a presidential commission stated: ''The concern and the distress of the American people over the national problem of drug abuse is expressed every day in the newspapers, the magazines, scientific journals, public forums and in

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Illicit drugs: Effects on eye

(3 days ago) The use of illicit drugs is a public health concern. Identification of ophthalmic side effects of these drugs is crucial for timely diagnosis and management of these cases. Not only is it essential for the general physician to use the ophthalmic signs for early diagnosis but also for the ophthalmologist to timely refer and treat the patient.

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Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD

(5 days ago) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of drugs indicated for the treatment of several inflammatory arthritides, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as well as for the management of other connective tissue diseases and some cancers. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, adverse event profile, pharmacology, monitoring, and relevant interactions of …

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Magnesium and Drugs

(3 days ago) Drugs and micronutrients use the same transport and metabolism pathways in the body for their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and elimination. This means that when one or more drugs are taken, there is always a potential risk of interactions with the nutrient status.

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Cognition-Enhancing Drugs

(3 days ago) Many drugs are widely used for off-label, nontherapeutic purposes, including drugs that improve cognition. According to the manufacturer's own data, for example, almost 350,000 prescriptions for the alertness drug modafinil are being written in the United States every year, even though the only condition for which it was approved until recently

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Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated Agents

(3 days ago) Drugs with the highest risk of DILI in this study were azathioprine and infliximab. Keywords: hepatotoxicity, drugs, drug-induced liver injury, idiosyncratic. 1. Introduction. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a frequent differential diagnosis in patients with acute liver injury without obvious etiology. Apart from exclusion of competing

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Our prescription drugs kill us in large numbers

(1 days ago) Our prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in the United States and Europe. Around half of those who die have taken their drugs correctly; the other half die because of errors, such as too high a dose or use of a drug despite contraindications.

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Drug abuse in athletes

(3 days ago) Introduction. Doping, defined as use of drugs or other substances for performance enhancement, has become an important topic in virtually every sport1 and has been discovered in athletes of all ages and at every level of competition.2–4 See Table 1 for rates of use of a variety of substances, whether doping agents or recreational substances, among different populations of …

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Emerging Therapeutic Drugs in Metastatic Triple-Negative

(3 days ago) Some targeted drugs, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), AR-targeted drugs, drugs targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway, or antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), have demonstrated clinical benefit in these patients. 17 The authors present in this article a review of the most recent drug advances in

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Antiretroviral Therapy: Current Drugs

(3 days ago) Currently available antiretroviral drugs have greater potency, tolerability, and less pill burden than earlier agents. Understanding the potency of the drugs and drug regimens, toxicity profile, drug interaction potential and resistance potential will help the clinicians to …

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Comprehension of Top 200 Prescribed Drugs in the US as a

(3 days ago) The drugs not listed as top 200 drugs in the ClinCalc website were excluded. Additionally, if a drug is used in combination with another drug it is treated as a separate drug entity from the parent drug. Figure 1 (a) List of 1–50 most prescribed drugs; (b) List of 51–100 most

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Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Autonomic Drugs

(3 days ago) Drugs that imitate and inhibit autonomic nerves are used extensively in medicine for managing cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal disorders. In dental practice, the use of autonomic drugs is more limited, but sympathomimetics are used extensively as vasoconstrictors to potentiate local anesthetics, and the

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Medications for the Treatment of Sleep Disorders: An Overview

(2 days ago) The many drugs in this class are best viewed therapeutically based on their pharmacodynamics (Table 1). Rapid onset of action is characteristic of flurazepam and triazolam, indicating that both of these agents have excellent sleep-inducing effects. Flurazepam, like diazepam and clorazepate, has active breakdown products.

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Immunosuppressive Drugs and COVID-19: A Review

(3 days ago) Immunosuppressive drugs could be harmful in the initial phase of COVID-19. In this phase, the host immune response is necessary to inhibit viral replication. However, immunosuppressive drugs might have a beneficial effect in the later, more severe phase of COVID-19.

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Clinical Review of Antidiabetic Drugs: Implications for

(3 days ago) Drugs that can prolong the effect of sulfonylureas such as aspirin, allopurinol, sulfonamides, and fibrates must be used with caution to avoid hypoglycemia. Moreover, other oral antidiabetic medications or insulin can be used in combination with sulfonylurea and can substantially increase the risk of hypoglycemia.

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Chronic Stress, Drug Use, and Vulnerability to Addiction

(3 days ago) Although acute administration of drugs increases mesolimbic dopamine, 241 regular and chronic use of abusive drugs and acute withdrawal states down regulate mesolimbic dopamine pathways with decreases in basal and stimulated dopamine reported in several preclinical studies. 242 – 251 Chronic use of cocaine has also been shown to dramatically

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Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

(3 days ago) Micronization of drugs is done by milling techniques using jet mill, rotor stator colloid mills and so forth micronization is not suitable for drugs having a high dose number because it does not change the saturation solubility of the drug . These processes were applied to griseofulvin, progesterone, spironolactone diosmin, and fenofibrate.

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Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

(5 days ago) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class FDA-approved for use as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. These effects make NSAIDs useful for treating muscle pain, dysmenorrhea, arthritic conditions, pyrexia, gout, migraines, and used as opioid-sparing agents in certain acute trauma cases.

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Drug Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

(3 days ago) Drugs associated with supportive care include antihypertensives, antipyretics, and insulin. Drugs associated with treating, and potentially reversing, the effects of the ischemic stroke directly consist of thrombolytics. Drugs used to prevent recurrent strokes include anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

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What are the drugs of the future

(3 days ago) Small-molecule drugs have historically been the pillars of traditional medicine. However, recently, we seem to be amidst a scientific revolution with the rise of many FDA-approved biologic drugs. This opinion article looks at the current state of small molecules and biologics and assesses what the future holds for these two broad classes of drugs.

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Antituberculosis drugs: drug interactions, adverse effects

(1 days ago) The main objectives of tuberculosis therapy are to cure the patients and to minimize the possibility of transmission of the bacillus to healthy subjects. Adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs or drug interactions (among antituberculosis drugs or between antituberculosis drugs and other drugs) ca …

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Antiepileptic Drug Interactions

(3 days ago) Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are widely used as long-term adjunctive therapy or as monotherapy in epilepsy and other indications and consist of a group of drugs that are highly susceptible to drug interactions. The purpose of the present review is to focus

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Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross

(3 days ago) Drugs available over the counter (OTC), and entered with specific names, were recorded as prescription drugs. For example, “ibuprofen” was assumed to be prescription ibuprofen, given the nature of the question(s) in the survey.

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Monitoring drug therapy

(3 days ago) Monitoring drug therapy. Monitoring therapeutic interventions in the context of the management of chronic disease has been defined as repeated testing aimed at guiding and adjusting the management of a chronic or recurrent condition .A major part of this activity is the monitoring of drug therapy, which can be defined as the measurement of a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic or …

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Overview of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

(3 days ago) Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at designated intervals to maintain a constant concentration in a patient's bloodstream, thereby optimizing individual dosage regimens. It is unnecessary to employ TDM for the majority of medications, and it is used mainly for monitoring drugs with narrow

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Developmental Consequences of Fetal Exposure to Drugs

(3 days ago) Most drugs of abuse easily cross the placenta and can affect fetal brain development. In utero exposures to drugs thus can have long-lasting implications for brain structure and function. These effects on the developing nervous system, before homeostatic regulatory mechanisms are properly calibrated, often differ from their effects on mature systems.

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Drugs in breastfeeding

(3 days ago) Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: effects on kidney

(Just Now) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are capable of inducing a variety of renal function abnormalities, particularly in high-risk patients with decreased renal blood perfusion who depend on prostaglandin synthesis to maintain normal renal function. Fluid retention is the most common NSAID-r …

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Narrow therapeutic index drugs: a clinical pharmacological

(3 days ago) Generic drugs may be substituted for brand-name drugs provided that they meet the recommended bioequivalence (BE) limits. However, an appropriate range of BE for NTIDs is essential to define due to the potential for ineffectiveness or adverse events. Flecainide is an antiarrhythmic agent that has the potential to be considered an NTID.

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ABC of wound healing: Non-surgical and drug treatments

(3 days ago) Drugs Pentoxifylline , a methylxanthine that improves perfusion of peripheral vascular beds, is useful in patients with ulcers secondary to peripheral vascular disease. It improves capillary microcirculation by decreasing blood viscosity and reducing platelet aggregation.

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Designer drugs: mechanism of action and adverse effects

(3 days ago) Designer drugs can generally be divided into the same categories as traditional drugs of abuse, namely stimulants, sedatives, dissociatives, cannabinoids, and psychedelics. However, in contrast to traditional drugs of abuse, newly emerging drugs can remain undetected by routine drug screening, and information about associated adverse effects is

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DRUG INDUCED CHOLESTASIS

(3 days ago) Lipid soluble drugs with molecular weights ~ 500 daltons or greater are selectively removed by the liver across the sinusoidal domain. Although some drugs diffuse across the cellular membrane, most require active or facilitated transporters (Phase 0) (5, 28, 29). Cellular uptake and binding to cytosolic proteins is followed by Phase I & II

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Dose Equivalents for Antipsychotic Drugs: The DDD Method

(3 days ago) The DDDs of depot drugs are based on the average recommended doses divided by the dosing interval. 4 We also present the results based on the following other methods to define dose equivalence for comparison: the “minimum effective dose method,” 9 the “classical mean dose method” (based on the original work by Davis in 1974 2 for first

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A systematic analysis of FDA-approved anticancer drugs

(3 days ago) Among the 21 drugs, 15 were cytotoxic drugs while six were targeted drugs. Most of the 21 drugs (16, 76%) were approved by FDA before 2000. The most commonly used drug was doxorubicin that could be used to treat 11 cancer types, including leukemia, breast cancer, stomach cancer, lymphoma, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, sarcoma, thyroid cancer

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Drugs in the medical treatment of Cushing's syndrome

(1 days ago) Drugs used to suppress cortisol secretion are mostly inhibitors of steroidogenesis. Ketoconazole, fluconazole aminoglutethimide, metyrapone, mitotane and etomidate are in that category. Ketoconazole is in current use while other drugs, although mostly available in the past, continue to have a potential role either alone or in combination.

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Drug Use in Pregnancy; a Point to Ponder!

(3 days ago) Drugs with a higher molecular weight (between 500-1000 g/mol) cross the placenta less easily, while a few drugs with a high molecular weight (>1000 g/mol) do not cross the placental membrane. Transplacental transfer of drugs increases in the third trimester due to increased maternal and placental blood flow, decreased thickness and increased

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Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery

(3 days ago) This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points.

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Quantitative Methods for Assessing Drug Synergism

(3 days ago) Drugs that produce overtly similar effects are often given in combination. These include drugs for treating many conditions such as hypertension, pain relief, and cough suppression. Certainly almost all cancer chemotherapy and many antimicrobial …

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Comparative review of the carbapenems

(1 days ago) The carbapenems are beta-lactam antimicrobial agents with an exceptionally broad spectrum of activity. Older carbapenems, such as imipenem, were often susceptible to degradation by the enzyme dehydropeptidase-1 (DHP-1) located in renal tubules and required co …

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Agitation and Dementia: Prevention and Treatment

(3 days ago) These drugs reduced agitation, anxiety, and impulsiveness and worsened apathy and cognitive functioning (191–193). Some evidence suggested that SSRIs may help treat some behavioral features without affecting cognition, but further studies are needed ( 187 ).

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Harms and benefits associated with psychoactive drugs

(3 days ago) Drugs that were rated as having low harms and low benefits were Viagra, hallucinogens, nitrous oxide and mild stimulants. The low beneficial rating of hallucinogens contradicts the findings of our prior UK drug survey (Morgan et al., 2010b). where hallucinogens were rated as one of the drugs with greatest long-term benefits. Hallucinogens were

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Cardiovascular complications of recreational drugs

(3 days ago) The consumption of recreational drugs has reached epidemic proportions. Forty five million European Union citizens have used cannabis at some time, with proportionately higher use among younger people. 1 The consumption of harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin is rising, with an estimated 1.5 million problem users in the European Union. Drug use is commonly associated with …

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Drug- and non-drug-associated QT interval prolongation

(3 days ago) Several other drugs (e.g. terfenadine, haloperidol, sertindole) were restricted in use because of this potential adverse reaction [9, 38]. Some of the QT c prolonging drugs withdrawn were associated with a QT c interval prolongation of only 5–10 ms in patient populations . However, this was an average and the possibility of more extreme

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