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Comprehension of Top 200 Prescribed Drugs in the US as a …
(3 days ago) The individual drugs are represented by generic name, drug class (when applicable), pharmacological action, major route of administration, adverse drug reactions and any applicable black box warnings [BB]. The lists contain many blockbuster drugs of the last 10 to 15 years, such as atorvastatin, simvastatin, etc.
(5 days ago) Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. Antiparasitic drugs include several classes of drugs that cover a broad range of diseases caused by parasites. This activity outlines the indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and …
Adolescents' use of prescribed drugs and over-the-counter …
(Just Now) Background: The objectives of this paper are to present data on the self-reported use of prescribed and over-the-counter drugs among young people aged 11-12 and 14-15 years and to examine factors associated with the use of prescribed drugs, over-the-counter painkillers and cough and cold treatments. Method: Data were collected from a representative sample of …
The high cost of prescription drugs: causes and solutions
(3 days ago) This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Global spending on prescription drugs in 2020 is expected to be ~$1.3 trillion; the United States alone will spend ~$350 billion 1. These high spending rates are expected to increase at a rate of 3–6% annually worldwide. The magnitude of increase is even more alarming for cancer treatments
Drug abuse in athletes
(3 days ago) Introduction. Doping, defined as use of drugs or other substances for performance enhancement, has become an important topic in virtually every sport1 and has been discovered in athletes of all ages and at every level of competition.2–4 See Table 1 for rates of use of a variety of substances, whether doping agents or recreational substances, among …
Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated Agents
(3 days ago) According to critical analysis of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in LiverTox, 53% of drugs had at least one case report of convincing reports of liver injury. Only 48 drugs had more than 50 case reports of DILI. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most commonly implicated agent leading to DILI in the prospective series.
Drug patents: the evergreening problem
(3 days ago) The problem is, these modified drugs don’t offer enough of an advantage over generic versions of the original molecules, says Jim Keon, president of the Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association. So the sophisticated lifecycle plans brand-name companies have for their products — rolling out new versions when patents near expiry — are
Drug-related Myopathies of Which the Clinician Should Be Aware
(3 days ago) Many drugs used for therapeutic interventions can cause unanticipated toxicity in muscle tissue, often leading to considerable morbidity. A drug-induced, or toxic, myopathy is defined as the acute or subacute manifestation of myopathic symptoms such as muscle weakness, myalgia, creatine kinase elevation, or myoglobinuria that can occur in patients without muscle disease when …
Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease
(3 days ago) Drugs can induce specific respiratory reactions or the lungs may be affected as part of a generalized response. More than 380 medications are known to cause drug-induced respiratory diseases, the true frequency is unknown [1, 2]. The number of drugs, that cause lung disease, will undoubtedly continue to increase as new agents are developed.
Nitrile-Containing Pharmaceuticals: Efficacious Roles of the Nitrile
(3 days ago) The nitrile group is quite robust and, in most cases, is not readily metabolized. 4 Metabolically, the nitrile group in most nitrile-containing drugs is passed through the body unchanged. 5 In cases of drug metabolism prior to elimination, the formation of glucuronides, 6 conjugation with glutathione, 7 N-dealkylation, 8 N-acetylation, 9
QT Prolonging Drugs
(5 days ago) Different drugs will induce changes in the hERG channels to variable degrees. Hence, different medications induce different levels of QT prolongation. Adverse Effects. QT prolongation increases the risk of torsades de pointes, a potentially lethal arrhythmia. Torsades de pointes is the most common form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; it
Classification of illegal and harmful drugs
(3 days ago) This week the House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology published the report of its inquiry on the classification of illegal drugs in the United Kingdom. 1 The report high-lighted glaring anomalies in the classification of illegal drugs into classes A, B, and C and reflected a broad agreement that the current system is not fit for purpose.
(5 days ago) Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2, beta-3. Adrenergic drugs will bind directly to one or more of these receptors to induce various physiologic effects. This activity examines the pharmacology, various therapeutic effects, and adverse …
Understanding the Global Problem of Drug Addiction is a …
(3 days ago) Illicit drug use has well-known detrimental effects, but the legal drugs tobacco and alcohol have far greater impact on human health world-wide. By a standard measure of morbidity, dalys, tobacco is at 4.1%, alcohol 4.0% (6.6% for males, 3.1% for females ); all illicit drugs combined add only 0.8% to global disease burden .
Drugs That Induce or Cause Deterioration of Myasthenia Gravis: …
(3 days ago) Drugs which impair neuromuscular transmission can block the nerve action potential or impair release of ACh from the presynaptic membrane, such as by inhibiting the presynaptic calcium channels (1 and 2). ACh esterase inhibitors at toxic levels may increase weakness through prolonged action of ACh . Neuromuscular transmission impairment may
Medications for the Treatment of Sleep Disorders: An Overview
(2 days ago) These drugs act at γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuroreceptors and have far less overdose danger and abuse potential than previous medications used for sleep. The many drugs in this class are best viewed therapeutically based on their pharmacodynamics (Table 1). Rapid onset of action is characteristic of flurazepam and triazolam, indicating that
DRUG INDUCED CHOLESTASIS
(3 days ago) All drugs used by the patient within the last 3 to 6 months should be enumerated. This relationship may not be obvious in patients with chronic liver disease from other causes or when taking multiple medications which may lead to drug-drug interactions . Increase of t serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity (usually more than three times the
Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques
(3 days ago) Other techniques that enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs include salt formation, change in dielectric constant of solvent, Chemical modification of the drug, use of hydrates or solvates, use of Soluble prodrug, application of ultrasonic waves, and spherical crystallization. Go to: 13. Conclusion.
Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes
(3 days ago) Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods.
Oral and Injectable (Non-Insulin) Pharmacological Agents for the
(5 days ago) While lifestyle changes such as dietary modification and increased physical activity can be very effective in improving glycemic control, over the long-term most individuals with T2DM will require medications to achieve and maintain glycemic control. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the healthcare practitioner with an overview of the existing oral and …
Deuterated drugs; where are we now
(3 days ago) Deuterated drugs collectively are worth at least a billion dollars. It would seem that the likelihood of obviousness rejections is increasing in this area. However, careful elucidation of metabolic outcomes from deuteration that would not be anticipated from the prior art, and are instead unexpected and unobvious, has enabled allowance.
Drugs to be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome: Focus on …
(3 days ago) DRUGS TO BE AVOIDED IN LQTS. Certain drugs, including some anesthetics, are known to contribute to QT prolongation. Considering that not all agents that prolong the QT interval increase TDR, drugs can be distinguished into the following groups depending on their simultaneous effects on the QT corrected using the Bazzet’s formula (QTc) interval and on …
Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and their implication in …
(3 days ago) Drugs that have a high degree of plasma protein binding are potentially more likely to be displaced by drug with greater affinity for the same binding site. From a mere clinical point of view, that displacement could be associated with symptoms, side effects or toxicities when the displaced drug has a higher degree of binding to plasma proteins
New Medications for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence
(3 days ago) Disulfiram is a promising cocaine relapse prevention medication. Disulfiram is an established medicine used for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It causes a characteristic unpleasant reaction when alcohol is ingested due to blockade of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase and the subsequent build-up of acetaldehyde.
Antiretroviral Therapy: Current Drugs
(3 days ago) Currently available antiretroviral drugs have greater potency, tolerability, and less pill burden than earlier agents. Understanding the potency of the drugs and drug regimens, toxicity profile, drug interaction potential and resistance potential will help the clinicians to select a regimen most suitable for a specific patient.
Commonly Prescribed Medications in a Population of Hospice …
(3 days ago) Patients were prescribed an average of 7.9 “as-needed” medications (range 1-42 medications) and an average of 8.3 regularly scheduled medications (range 1-69 medications). The 100 most commonly prescribed drugs are listed in Table 3. The 6 most common drugs (acetaminophen, morphine, haloperidol, lorazepam, prochlorperazine, and atropine
(1 days ago) Pro-oxidant drugs, such as Trisenox and Elesclomol, are demonstrating clinical utility in the treatment of cancer. Results obtained with Bz-423 in mice demonstrate the potential for mitochondria-targeted drugs to control disorders of immune function. Research associating an elevated oxidant state with mitochondrial damage, degenerative disease
Drugs for Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Quest for the …
(3 days ago) Though numerous drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials, most of them have returned inconclusive results and shown poorly-tolerated adverse effects. None of the drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Vitamin E and pioglitazone have been extensively used
Cardiovascular effects of anti-diabetes drugs
(1 days ago) Introduction: Cardiovascular disease remains the major contributor to morbidity and mortality in diabetes. From the need to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes and to ensure that such risk is not exacerbated by drug treatments, governmental regulators and drug manufacturers have focused on clinical trials evaluating cardiovascular outcomes.
Histologic Changes In Recreational Drug Misuse
(3 days ago) Abstract. Use of recreational drugs is associated with a number of histologic changes. These may be related to the method of administration or due to systemic effects of the drugs. This paper reviews the histopathological features seen following recreational drug use. With injection, there may be local effects from abscess formation and
(3 days ago) Moderate hypokalemia is often associated with cramping, weakness, malaise, and myalgias. In severe hypokalemia, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes often occur, including ST-segment depression or S-T–segment flattening, T-wave inversion, and/or U-wave elevation. These ECG changes can lead to various arrhythmias, including heart block, atrial
Potentially Inappropriate Medications in the Elderly: The PRISCUS …
(3 days ago) Certain drugs are classified as potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) for the elderly because they carry an increased risk of adverse drug events in this patient group. PIM lists from other countries are of limited usefulness in Germany because different drugs are on the market in each country and prescribing practices vary as well.
Medicine Cabinet: How medications affect thyroid function
(3 days ago) drugs that impair the absorption of exogenous thyroxine Patients should take levothyroxine on an empty stomach for optimal absorption. Several medications, including iron, aluminum-containing products (such as sucralfate, antacids, and didanosine), sodium polystyrene sulfonate, resin binders, and calcium carbonate have been reported to impair
A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Preclinical Models of Lung
(3 days ago) Drugs that enter human research use are met with a low ultimate FDA approval rate of 5–7% , and there is a paucity of studies on whether satisfaction of preclinical criteria predicts eventual regulatory clearance. In regards to lung cancer drug development, specifically,
The Search for Medications to Treat Stimulant Dependence
(3 days ago) The demand for treatment for cocaine dependence remained roughly level from 1992 to 2005, while the demand for treatment for amphetamine dependence increased about eight-fold (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006).Although progress has been made in developing new psychosocial treatments for stimulant dependence, many patients do …
Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia
(3 days ago) Atypical drugs show a better pharmacological profile under this respect, even though risperidone, amisulpride and zotepine induce hyperprolactinemia with frequencies and levels similar to those observed with classical drugs. Other atypical drugs, such olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole can be used in switching protocols to correct an
Drug-facilitated sexual assault
(3 days ago) Many drugs, alone or in combination, have the potential to be used to facilitate sexual assault, including alcohol, benzodiazepines, antihistamines, antidepressants, marijuana, cocaine and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). 1, 3, 4 This list is extensive and is growing as new drugs become available and new interactions are identified.
Positive change in the utilization of antihypertensive and lipid
(1 days ago) Aim: To assess the changes in the utilization of antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering drugs among all adult Finnish coronary heart disease (CHD) patients between 2000 and 2006, and to evaluate the treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia in a population-based sample of CHD patients. Methods: From the databases of the Social Insurance …